Wednesday, 24 May 2017


You just got home after a long and tiring day at work. You kick off your shoes, sit on your comfy cushioned chair and turn on the television to your favourite programs. Just as you think all is right in the world, you noticed a putrid smell in the air. *Click* Suddenly you remembered the half finished morning breakfast that you forgot to leave in the fridge and now it has become this mouldy and sour smelling abomination.

Sir Alexander Fleming, 1951.
Alfred Eisenstaedt-Time &Life Picture/Getty Images

Obviously, most people would have chucked it out in no time, but if Scottish biologist Sir Alexander Fleming decided to just throw one of his experiments gone wrong: humanity wouldn’t be able to reap the benefits of his life saving penicillin-the world’s first real antibiotic. Diseases such as pneumonia, gonorrhoea and food poisoning and much more would run rampant. With no cure, the death toll would definitely increase with the prospect of humanity’s future ever grim.

But what if I told you that this disaster was prevented or at the very least reduced because of pure human error? Fleming was studying a way to overcome Staphylococcus, the bacteria that causes such nasty diseases.

During his vacation from his duties as a bacteriologist at St. Mary’s hospital, he had returned to his dusty old laboratory when he noticed how there were mould spots covering his accidentally left open staphylococcus petri dish. In a fit of pure curiosity/ stroke of genius, he had put the dish under a microscope and that’s when he made a miraculous discovery: the mould spots had no traces of the deadly bacteria. 

    Science Photos/ Shutterstock

This mould was called penicillin chrysogenum and it revolutionised the world of medicine. 14 years later, in March 1942; Anne Miller became the first successfully cured patient thanks to penicillin which is still saving lives even today. Who said nothing good ever comes out of accidents?

Shared by David Mok
Guest Blogger

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

360-Degree Video

Shared by Celine Woon
Guest Blogger

Happy World Scratch Day!

This year, Scratch celebrates their 10th Anniversary during the month of May with more than 1,000 events happening around the world to celebrate #ScratchDay. Over the past decade, more than 18 million people have joined the Scratch online community. Scratchers have shared more than 22 million projects so far, with 30,000 new ones every day!

On specific occasions like school holidays, visitors can come to Petrosains to explore Scratch at our Innovation Lab. Otherwise, you can start learning from the comfort of your home by signing up to Scratch online at here . Start creating your own stories, animations and even games today, and share with others around the world!

Shared by Foo Huey Chyun
Guest Blogger

Friday, 19 May 2017

Say Cheese!

Canon, Nikon, Sony, Panasonic, Olympus, Pentax, and Leica are well-known brands for cameras. Just a push of a button and click! - the memories of a special day, event, person or place is captured on film or digital. The first permanent photograph of a camera image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.

The three pillars of photography are shutter speed, ISO, and aperture. A camera shutter is a stiff curtain, or plate, in front of the camera sensor or film that stays closed until the camera fires which causes the shutter to open and fully exposing the camera sensor or film to light that passes through the lens. After the sensor or film is done collecting the light, the shutter closes immediately, stopping the light from entering the lens. Whereas an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels into the camera based on the allowed amount of light to enter. Once all of that is combined, a clear image of what is being viewed can be seen. 

Much like the camera process, the human eye works in the same way. Light travels through the pupil and onto the retina. The image is then sharpened by the eye lens with the pupil of the eye adjusting itself to the amount of light, whether if it's too bright or dark. As for the camera shutter, it is like the eyelids, which can blink in fractions of a second. The image is then stored in the brain.

The size of the pupil is controlled by the iris. Irises are what give our eyes colour, which is brown, grey, blue, hazel, violet, or green. When the pupils are dilated, they appear big, and when they are constricted, it looks like a tiny black dot.  This is caused by either an excess or lack of light within ones surrounding. When a pupil dilates, it dictates that not enough light is given meanwhile a dilated pupil is the complete opposite. 

 Dilated pupil

Constricted pupil

To observe the dilation and constriction of the pupil. 

a friend, torchlight, dark room.

1. In a dark room, shine a light onto your friend’s eye and observe what happens to the pupil. 
2. Turn the torchlight away and observe what happens to the pupil. 

Glossary of Terms:
Constrict [kuh n-strikt] cause to contract or shrink; compress.
Dilate [di- ley] to make wider or larger; cause to expand.
Retina [ret-n-uh] the innermost layer of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens.

Shared by Surain A. Victor
Guest Blogger

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Seeds of Life

Where do plants come from? How did they grow out from the ground?
Babies come from mothers. At first, they grow inside the mother’s womb and come out into this world when they are big enough. Ok, so how about plants?

Seeds are found in fruits, such as an apple. When seeds drop to the ground, and with favourable conditions, they will begin to germinate. Germination is a process of tiny buds and roots sprouting from the seed. The tiny buds will grow upwards out from the soil and develop into stems and leaves. On the other hand, the roots will grow downwards deeper into the soil in search for water and minerals. This process requires energy that is stored inside the seed. Once the plant is mature enough, it will start producing its own fruits and the cycle continues.

Did you know that beans are a type of seed? They are rich in protein, complex carbohydrates, folate and iron. Green beans, along with coconut milk, are what make your bowl of bubur kacang hijau yummy, and kidney beans are one of the ingredients in a delicious bowl of ABC.

Experiment: Seed germination

green beans, tissue paper, small glass container.

1. Dampen a few pieces of tissue paper and insert them into the glass container. 
2. Place a few green beans at the sides of the inside of the container so that they are visible.
3. Leave it for several days.
4. Ensure the tissue papers are always damp by spraying water into the container. Do not overwater.
5. After a few days, notice the tiny roots and buds emerging from the seeds. 
Fact: The seeds from tomato that has been stored up to three years will still be able to germinate. 

Glossary of terms:
Germinate [jur-muh-neyt] to develop into a plant, sprout.
Womb [woom] the uterus of the human female and higher mammals.
Folate [foh-leyt] a form of vitamin B.
Iron [ahy-ern]a type of mineral for forming healthy blood.

Shared by Surain A. Victor
Guest Blogger

Friday, 5 May 2017

'Pembelajaran Bermakna' lawan 'Pembelajaran Tak Bermakna'.

Rumusan penting perkongsian para peserta bengkel guru berkenaan 'Pembelajaran Bermakna' lawan 'Pembelajaran Tak Bermakna'.

"Para peserta berbincang dan beberapa orang peserta bangun dan berkongsi pengalaman mereka berdasarkan soalan-soalan berikut ...

1. Apakah pengalaman pembelajaran secara formal yang paling bermakna yang pernah anda lalui? Apakah yang menyebabkan ia sangat bermakna?

2. Apakah pengalaman pembelajaran formal anda yang paling tidak menyenangkan? Kenapakah ia tidak bermakna?"

Menerusi perbincangan, para peserta dilihat telah mengaitkan pengalaman yang dilalui dengan 'siapakah yang mengawal aspek-aspek pembelajaran'.
Apakah itu aspek pembelajaran? ~ ialah perkara dalam sesebuah pembelajaran. Terdapat 3 aspek am pembelajaran, iaitu soalan/permasalahan pembelajaran, langkah-langkah penyelesaian, dan hasil pembelajaran. Bagi setiap aspek tersebut, antara guru dan pelajar, siapakah yang ...

1. ... menentukan soalan pembelajaran atau permasalahan?
- Bermaksud, siapakah yang dominan untuk bertanyakan soalan yang menentukan arah pembelajaran/penyiasatan?

2. ... menentukan langkah-langkah penyelesaian?
- Bermaksud, siapakah yang dominan untuk menentukan alat yang boleh digunakan, atau cara data direkodkan?

3. ... menentukan hasil pembelajaran?

Ini bermaksud, adakah permasalahan itu mempunyai banyak penyelesaian yang mungkin, ataukah hanya terdapat satu jawapan betul sahaja?

Dalam sesebuah pembelajaran berpusatkan guru, guru mengawal setiap aspek tersebut. Sementara dalam sesebuah pembelajaran berpusatkan murid, murid mengawalnya– bermula dengan aspek hasil pembelajaran, kemudian aspek langkah-langkah penyelesaian, dan kemuncaknya aspek soalan pembelajaran atau permasalahan.

Dapat dirumuskan di sini bahawa berdasarkan pengalaman, para peserta bengkel bersetuju bahawa 'pembelajaran bermakna' berlaku kerana mereka mempunyai kawalan ke atas aspek-aspek pembelajaran. Sementara itu, 'pembelajaran tak bermakna' mereka berlaku kerana guru-guru mereka dahulu menggunakan pendekatan berpusatkan guru.

Setiap pendekatan sama ada berpusatkan guru mahupun berpusatkan murid sebenarnya mempunyai kelebihan yang tersendiri disamping ada had atau risiko yang perlu guru bersedia menanganinya.

Namun, jika guru berhasrat untuk menjadikan pelajar lebih dinamik dan berani dalam meneroka maklumat dan merangsang inkuiri, hendaklah guru menekankan bimbingan murid menerusi pendekatan berpusatkan murid. Pendekatan
berpusatkan murid adalah teras dalam idea Pembelajaran Abad Ke-21.

Shared by Imran Arif
Guest Blogger

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Keperluan Berfikir Di Kalangan Murid & Bagaimana Melaksanakannya

"Bahan pameran Petrosains, tingkat 4 Suria KLCC - 'Membina Jambatan'. Pelawat diajak berfikir tentang menyelesaikan masalah membina jambatan yang membolehkan model kapal lalu di bawahnya. Ada tiga tahap kesusahan masalah - membina jambatan berjarak 3/4 jengkal, sejengkal setengah, dan dua jengkal lebih - menggunakan 11 buah blok yang dibekalkan".

Keperluan Berfikir Di Kalangan Murid & Bagaimana Melaksanakannya

Berfikir adalah satu keperluan dalam menjalani kehidupan. Berfikir sentiasa mempunyai dua tujuan khusus iaitu untuk MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN dan MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH. Oleh sebab kita sentiasa berhadapan dengan situasi yang memerlukan penyelesaian atau keputusan, maka kemahiran berfikir menjadi satu keperluan untuk menguruskan situasi dengan baik.

Dalam konteks pendidikan, kemahiran berfikir membantu menyediakan murid berkebolehan menyelesaikan masalah-masalah kehidupan dan membuat keputusan 'dengan berkesan' apabila diperlukan.

Jika demikian pentingnya aktiviti berfikir itu, apakah murid-murid kita telah diasuh dengan kemahiran berfikir yang betul? Jika guru berhasrat untuk mengasuh murid dengan kemahiran-kemahiran berkaitan, di manakah boleh guru bermula?

Guru yang berhasrat memupuk kemahiran ini di kalangan murid tidaklah perlu memperuntukkan satu mata pelajaran khas tentang berfikir. Apabila ada bahan rangsangan dan permasalahan untuk difikirkan, maka murid dengan sendirinya akan berfikir. Setiap manusia juga sudah 'dibekalkan' dengan satu kebolehan semulajadi iaitu rasa ingin tahu. Jika guru dapat mencantumkan rasa ingin tahu murid dengan bahan pembelajaran yang dihasratkan, maka murid akan berupaya berfikir. Jadi, guru perlu mengenalpasti rangsangan yang tepat untuk murid-muridnya.

Boleh jadi sebab utama murid tidak cenderung untuk berfikir ialah sama ada rangsangannya tidak merangsang atau kerana arahan / soalan yang diberikan tidak jelas. Rangsangan yang tidak merangsang bermaksud guru tidak menyediakan peluang yang mencukupi untuk pelajar membina rasa pemilikan (ownership) ke atas soalan-soalan pembelajaran; hanya guru yang boleh bertanya dan soalan yang ditanyakan juga mungkin terlalu kompleks untuk murid. Sementara tentang arahan / soalan yang tidak jelas, ini adalah keadaan apabila guru tidak memberikannya pada masa yang betul. Guru hanya memberikan arahan setelah pelajar mula berinteraksi dengan bahan dan hanyut dengan penerokaan masing-masing. Atau, boleh jadi juga guru tidak menguasai perbendaharaan kata yang baik menyebabkan lain yang diarah / disoal sedangkan lain tindakan / jawapan yang diharapkan daripada murid.

Shared by Imran Arif
Guest Blogger

Thursday, 6 April 2017

Streetsmart 5/5: Road Signs. What Do They Mean?

Road signs. What do they mean?

Road signs are there to tell you what you are allowed to do and what you must not do.
It is important to understand and adhere to road signs. 

1. Circular signs give orders

     Blue circular signs usually tell you what you MUST DO

Turn left ahead

      Red circular signs usually tell you what you MUST NOT DO

No entry for vehicles

2. Triangular signs give warnings
Pedestrian crossing ahead

3. Rectangular signs give information

4.  Yellow traffic signs - Yellow caution and directional traffic signs help alert drivers to any traffic pattern changes they must be aware of.

Two way street sign

Check them all at:

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Streetsmart 4/5: If The Skull Protects The Brain, Why Do We Need To Wear A Helmet?

Why do we need to wear a helmet?

The skull or cranium is part of a system that protects the brain. But the skull alone, is not sufficient protection against head trauma! That is why we need helmets!

Helmets are designed to protect or minimize head and brain injuries in an uncontrolled environment. So when buying a helmet, please ensure that:-

1. It has SIRIM certified label
2. It fits according to our head size and shape
3. It has adjustable straps 

'Balut' – A Philippines Delicacy

If you’ve been to the Philippines, you probably would have eaten balut.  Did you?  I never did as I felt squeamish!  What is this delicacy that even Amazing Race participants had to partake this strange food? Even though it’s a national dish, not everyone love it!  

Credit: Wikimedia Commons 

What is balut? Its fertilised eggs that contain almost developed embryos.  Normally eaten whole from the shell when the bones of the embryo are still soft, it’s a common street food in the Philippines.  By the way, it is believed that balut was introduced to the Filipinos by Chinese traders back in the 1800s.  It is also found in Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam.

                                                               Credit: Wikimedia Commons 

How is balut made?

1. The egg
Balut eggs are incubated for 18 days for duck eggs, and 13 to 14 days for chicken eggs. At these stages, the bones are soft enough to be eaten and the feathers have not developed.

Fully fertilised duck eggs normally incubate for 28 days, while chicken eggs for just 21 days.

2. Preparation

What do you do if you get a raw (uncooked) balut egg? 
Boil water over high heat, place the egg in the water, cover the pot, reduce the heat to medium, and boil the egg for 30 minutes.

Boiling at high heat will kill any bacteria that might grow in the eggs during the incubation period.

When 30 minutes is up, remove the egg and immerse it in a bowl of ice water. This will stop the cooking process and help cool the egg faster.

3. Eating - the quick & easy way

Eat the balut directly from the shell while it is still warm.

Step 1: Crack the Egg
Look for the larger end of the egg and crack it gently using a spoon or a fork.  Make sure NOT to crack all the way through.  Just make a small hole at the top.

Step 2: Drink the broth
Put salt and drink the broth from the hole.  It taste soup-like.

Step 3: Peel the rest of the shell
Peel the rest of the egg and eat the yolk with salt or vinegar.

Step 4: Eat the embryo (Save the best for last)
Pick the embryo out from the egg, sprinkle some salt or vinegar and chew it.

Step 5: Leave the white part
The white part is quite rubbery.

According to Sharon Perkins (a registered nurse and coauthor & editor of numerous health books for the Wiley "Dummies" series), balut is a nutritious snack, high in protein and calcium. A serving of balut contain 188 calories, including 14 grams each of protein and fat, 2 milligrams of iron and 116 milligrams of calcium.  That’s how nutritious balut is.  Don’t take her word for it, try it!

Enjoy your balut!  Cheers!

Shared by Azni Zainal Abidin

Guest Blogger

Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Reka Cipta Patung Kertas

Anda kini boleh membuat patung kertas anda sendiri!

Dengan menggunakan teknik lipatan, cetak dan gunting templat di bawah untuk menghasilkan patung kertas yang comel dan kreatif. Tambah bahan-bahan perhiasan anda sendiri untuk mencantikkannya lagi. Selamat mencuba!

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Buat Beg Kain Semudah 1,2,3!

Anda boleh menghasilkan beg sendiri dengan hanya menggunakan kain. Kita juga secara tidak langsung dapat memelihara alam sekitar dengan mengurangkan penggunaan beg yang diperbuat daripada plastik. Ikuti cara mudah di bawah untuk membuat 3 jenis beg yang berlainan iaitu:-

1: Beg pembawa botol
2: Beg galas bahu
3: Beg galas tangan

Selamat mencuba!

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Wednesday, 8 March 2017

Streetsmart 3/5: Be Bright, Be seen

Be bright, be seen
Even though cars have headlights, drivers might not always see pedestrians. Here are some helpful tips to staying bright and seen!

1) Dress brightly!
When we go out during daytime, it is advisable to wear colourful or fluorescent clothing so cars can see us.

At night, wear light-coloured clothing as it will make us more visible as a biker or pedestrian. 

2) Wear reflective gear
The smallest amount of reflective wear will make a difference, whether it be a key ring, bag tag, reflective-tape, sticker or bike reflector so the cars can see us in their headlights.

3) Customise our backpack
Another way to be seen is by customizing our backpack with cool reflective zip clips and stickers.

Check them all at:

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Streetsmart 2/5: Which Side Of The Road Should I Walk On?

Which Side Of The Road Should I Walk On?

It is always recommended to walk facing the direction of oncoming traffic in Malaysia. This is safer as we will be more alert of approaching vehicles. 

For a road that has sidewalks, it is acceptable to walk on the sidewalk on either side of the road (facing oncoming traffic or against traffic). The sidewalk will help separate us from the vehicles.

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Tuesday, 7 March 2017

Streetsmart 1/5: Why should I Look To My Right, Look Left And Right Again?

Why should I look to my right, look left and right again?

When attempting to cross the road, we must always be mindful of oncoming traffic. To cross the road safely, we must first stop and check for approaching vehicles by looking to the right and left sides of the road.  We should then check the right side again to ensure that the road is clear before crossing. As we reach the middle of the road, we should look again to our left.

But BEWARE! Some roads are different. Traffic can also move only in one direction - these are called one-way streets. That's why we should always look both ways before crossing.

Check them all at: 

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Wednesday, 22 February 2017

Calling for Guest Bloggers!

We would love to feature more guest bloggers on the Petrosains blog. If you have interesting stories on science or related topics which you came across in Petrosains or anywhere else; we welcome you to write for the Petrosains blog! Remember, the articles must be originals.

Submit your article TODAY & every submission will receive an exclusive #BlogLife T-shirt from Petrosains. 

Hurry! Send it to with your blog post in *.doc format and your photograph!

Feel free to contact for more details. 

Visit Petrosains blog at!  

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger 

Friday, 17 February 2017

Terokai Hubungkait Ekosistem Darat-Akuatik Melalui Satu Eksperimen Mudah!

Terokai hubungkait di antara ekosistem darat (terrestrial) dengan akuatik...

Kebiasaannya, ramai yang beranggapan ekosistem darat (terrestrial) dan ekosistem akuatik merupakan dua ekosistem yang berasingan. Tetapi sebenarnya dua ekosistem ini adalah berhubungkait antara satu sama lain melalui pelbagai cara. Salah satu daripadanya adalah melalui air.

Air merupakan keperluan asas bagi semua benda hidup. Air berpunca dari kawasan tanah tinggi dan akan melalui tanah sebelum ia memasuki ke dalam sungai, tasik dan laut. Air yang melaui tanah akan membawa bersama daun-daun kering, nutrien dari tanah, bahan kimia pertanian, garam dan sisa hidrokarbon dari kenderaan yang dipercayai boleh memberi kesan mendalam kepada benda hidup di dalam ekosistem akuatik. 

Sejurus bahan-bahan ini memasuki tanah, ia akan mengubahsuai keadaan komuniti di dalam ekosistem akuatik dari segi biologi, fizikal dan kimia. 

Model 'Terra-Aqua Column'
Cuba bina satu model 'Terra-Aqua Column' yang  membolehkan kita melihat sendiri dan meneroka hubungkait  di antara ekosistem daratan dan ekosistem akuatik. 

Model ini terdiri daripada dua unit. Bahagian atas botol (A) yang telah dipotong dan diterbalikkan diisi dengan tanah dan tumbuh-tumbahan mewakili ekosistem darat (terrestrial) manakala bahagian bawah botol (B) yang diisi dengan air dari kolam, tasik atau sungai mewakili sistem akuatik. 

Tali yang diperbuat dari kapas digunakan pada model ini dan ia berfungsi untuk mengangkut air masuk (melalui peresapan dan tindakan kapilari) ke dalam kedua-dua ekosistem ini.

Letakkan model ini berhampiran dengan tingkap ataupun dengan sumber cahaya matahari. Biarkan ia di situ. Lakukan pemerhatian setiap hari dan catatkan apa-apa perubahan yang dapat dilihat. 

Pelbagai aspek boleh diketahui melalui kajian interaksi daratan-akuatik ini. Di antaranya adalah:-
1) Nutrien yang terkandung di dalam tanah
2) Kepekatan tanah
3) Kesan pestisid 
4) Pertumbuhan alga dan tumbuhan akuatik
5) Faktor fizikal seperti cahaya dan suhu yang mempengarui kadar pertumbuhan benda hidup
... dan lain-lain lagi

Tonton video di bawah ini untuk melihat cara membina model 'Terra-Aqua Column'!

Mudah bukan? Anda boleh mencubanya sendiri di rumah. Selamat berjaya!

1. Ekosistem - Sistem ekologi semulajadi yang terbentuk sebagai hasil daripada tindakan yang menyaling antara benda-benda hidup dan persekitarannya.

Posted by Ayu Royani
Petrosains Blogger