Wednesday, 24 May 2017


You just got home after a long and tiring day at work. You kick off your shoes, sit on your comfy cushioned chair and turn on the television to your favourite programs. Just as you think all is right in the world, you noticed a putrid smell in the air. *Click* Suddenly you remembered the half finished morning breakfast that you forgot to leave in the fridge and now it has become this mouldy and sour smelling abomination.

Sir Alexander Fleming, 1951.
Alfred Eisenstaedt-Time &Life Picture/Getty Images

Obviously, most people would have chucked it out in no time, but if Scottish biologist Sir Alexander Fleming decided to just throw one of his experiments gone wrong: humanity wouldn’t be able to reap the benefits of his life saving penicillin-the world’s first real antibiotic. Diseases such as pneumonia, gonorrhoea and food poisoning and much more would run rampant. With no cure, the death toll would definitely increase with the prospect of humanity’s future ever grim.

But what if I told you that this disaster was prevented or at the very least reduced because of pure human error? Fleming was studying a way to overcome Staphylococcus, the bacteria that causes such nasty diseases.

During his vacation from his duties as a bacteriologist at St. Mary’s hospital, he had returned to his dusty old laboratory when he noticed how there were mould spots covering his accidentally left open staphylococcus petri dish. In a fit of pure curiosity/ stroke of genius, he had put the dish under a microscope and that’s when he made a miraculous discovery: the mould spots had no traces of the deadly bacteria. 

    Science Photos/ Shutterstock

This mould was called penicillin chrysogenum and it revolutionised the world of medicine. 14 years later, in March 1942; Anne Miller became the first successfully cured patient thanks to penicillin which is still saving lives even today. Who said nothing good ever comes out of accidents?

Shared by David Mok
Guest Blogger

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

360-Degree Video

Shared by Celine Woon
Guest Blogger

Happy World Scratch Day!

This year, Scratch celebrates their 10th Anniversary during the month of May with more than 1,000 events happening around the world to celebrate #ScratchDay. Over the past decade, more than 18 million people have joined the Scratch online community. Scratchers have shared more than 22 million projects so far, with 30,000 new ones every day!

On specific occasions like school holidays, visitors can come to Petrosains to explore Scratch at our Innovation Lab. Otherwise, you can start learning from the comfort of your home by signing up to Scratch online at here . Start creating your own stories, animations and even games today, and share with others around the world!

Shared by Foo Huey Chyun
Guest Blogger

Friday, 19 May 2017

Say Cheese!

Canon, Nikon, Sony, Panasonic, Olympus, Pentax, and Leica are well-known brands for cameras. Just a push of a button and click! - the memories of a special day, event, person or place is captured on film or digital. The first permanent photograph of a camera image was made in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.

The three pillars of photography are shutter speed, ISO, and aperture. A camera shutter is a stiff curtain, or plate, in front of the camera sensor or film that stays closed until the camera fires which causes the shutter to open and fully exposing the camera sensor or film to light that passes through the lens. After the sensor or film is done collecting the light, the shutter closes immediately, stopping the light from entering the lens. Whereas an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels into the camera based on the allowed amount of light to enter. Once all of that is combined, a clear image of what is being viewed can be seen. 

Much like the camera process, the human eye works in the same way. Light travels through the pupil and onto the retina. The image is then sharpened by the eye lens with the pupil of the eye adjusting itself to the amount of light, whether if it's too bright or dark. As for the camera shutter, it is like the eyelids, which can blink in fractions of a second. The image is then stored in the brain.

The size of the pupil is controlled by the iris. Irises are what give our eyes colour, which is brown, grey, blue, hazel, violet, or green. When the pupils are dilated, they appear big, and when they are constricted, it looks like a tiny black dot.  This is caused by either an excess or lack of light within ones surrounding. When a pupil dilates, it dictates that not enough light is given meanwhile a dilated pupil is the complete opposite. 

 Dilated pupil

Constricted pupil

To observe the dilation and constriction of the pupil. 

a friend, torchlight, dark room.

1. In a dark room, shine a light onto your friend’s eye and observe what happens to the pupil. 
2. Turn the torchlight away and observe what happens to the pupil. 

Glossary of Terms:
Constrict [kuh n-strikt] cause to contract or shrink; compress.
Dilate [di- ley] to make wider or larger; cause to expand.
Retina [ret-n-uh] the innermost layer of the posterior part of the eyeball that receives the image produced by the lens.

Shared by Surain A. Victor
Guest Blogger

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Seeds of Life

Where do plants come from? How did they grow out from the ground?
Babies come from mothers. At first, they grow inside the mother’s womb and come out into this world when they are big enough. Ok, so how about plants?

Seeds are found in fruits, such as an apple. When seeds drop to the ground, and with favourable conditions, they will begin to germinate. Germination is a process of tiny buds and roots sprouting from the seed. The tiny buds will grow upwards out from the soil and develop into stems and leaves. On the other hand, the roots will grow downwards deeper into the soil in search for water and minerals. This process requires energy that is stored inside the seed. Once the plant is mature enough, it will start producing its own fruits and the cycle continues.

Did you know that beans are a type of seed? They are rich in protein, complex carbohydrates, folate and iron. Green beans, along with coconut milk, are what make your bowl of bubur kacang hijau yummy, and kidney beans are one of the ingredients in a delicious bowl of ABC.

Experiment: Seed germination

green beans, tissue paper, small glass container.

1. Dampen a few pieces of tissue paper and insert them into the glass container. 
2. Place a few green beans at the sides of the inside of the container so that they are visible.
3. Leave it for several days.
4. Ensure the tissue papers are always damp by spraying water into the container. Do not overwater.
5. After a few days, notice the tiny roots and buds emerging from the seeds. 
Fact: The seeds from tomato that has been stored up to three years will still be able to germinate. 

Glossary of terms:
Germinate [jur-muh-neyt] to develop into a plant, sprout.
Womb [woom] the uterus of the human female and higher mammals.
Folate [foh-leyt] a form of vitamin B.
Iron [ahy-ern]a type of mineral for forming healthy blood.

Shared by Surain A. Victor
Guest Blogger

Friday, 5 May 2017

'Pembelajaran Bermakna' lawan 'Pembelajaran Tak Bermakna'.

Rumusan penting perkongsian para peserta bengkel guru berkenaan 'Pembelajaran Bermakna' lawan 'Pembelajaran Tak Bermakna'.

"Para peserta berbincang dan beberapa orang peserta bangun dan berkongsi pengalaman mereka berdasarkan soalan-soalan berikut ...

1. Apakah pengalaman pembelajaran secara formal yang paling bermakna yang pernah anda lalui? Apakah yang menyebabkan ia sangat bermakna?

2. Apakah pengalaman pembelajaran formal anda yang paling tidak menyenangkan? Kenapakah ia tidak bermakna?"

Menerusi perbincangan, para peserta dilihat telah mengaitkan pengalaman yang dilalui dengan 'siapakah yang mengawal aspek-aspek pembelajaran'.
Apakah itu aspek pembelajaran? ~ ialah perkara dalam sesebuah pembelajaran. Terdapat 3 aspek am pembelajaran, iaitu soalan/permasalahan pembelajaran, langkah-langkah penyelesaian, dan hasil pembelajaran. Bagi setiap aspek tersebut, antara guru dan pelajar, siapakah yang ...

1. ... menentukan soalan pembelajaran atau permasalahan?
- Bermaksud, siapakah yang dominan untuk bertanyakan soalan yang menentukan arah pembelajaran/penyiasatan?

2. ... menentukan langkah-langkah penyelesaian?
- Bermaksud, siapakah yang dominan untuk menentukan alat yang boleh digunakan, atau cara data direkodkan?

3. ... menentukan hasil pembelajaran?

Ini bermaksud, adakah permasalahan itu mempunyai banyak penyelesaian yang mungkin, ataukah hanya terdapat satu jawapan betul sahaja?

Dalam sesebuah pembelajaran berpusatkan guru, guru mengawal setiap aspek tersebut. Sementara dalam sesebuah pembelajaran berpusatkan murid, murid mengawalnya– bermula dengan aspek hasil pembelajaran, kemudian aspek langkah-langkah penyelesaian, dan kemuncaknya aspek soalan pembelajaran atau permasalahan.

Dapat dirumuskan di sini bahawa berdasarkan pengalaman, para peserta bengkel bersetuju bahawa 'pembelajaran bermakna' berlaku kerana mereka mempunyai kawalan ke atas aspek-aspek pembelajaran. Sementara itu, 'pembelajaran tak bermakna' mereka berlaku kerana guru-guru mereka dahulu menggunakan pendekatan berpusatkan guru.

Setiap pendekatan sama ada berpusatkan guru mahupun berpusatkan murid sebenarnya mempunyai kelebihan yang tersendiri disamping ada had atau risiko yang perlu guru bersedia menanganinya.

Namun, jika guru berhasrat untuk menjadikan pelajar lebih dinamik dan berani dalam meneroka maklumat dan merangsang inkuiri, hendaklah guru menekankan bimbingan murid menerusi pendekatan berpusatkan murid. Pendekatan
berpusatkan murid adalah teras dalam idea Pembelajaran Abad Ke-21.

Shared by Imran Arif
Guest Blogger

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Keperluan Berfikir Di Kalangan Murid & Bagaimana Melaksanakannya

"Bahan pameran Petrosains, tingkat 4 Suria KLCC - 'Membina Jambatan'. Pelawat diajak berfikir tentang menyelesaikan masalah membina jambatan yang membolehkan model kapal lalu di bawahnya. Ada tiga tahap kesusahan masalah - membina jambatan berjarak 3/4 jengkal, sejengkal setengah, dan dua jengkal lebih - menggunakan 11 buah blok yang dibekalkan".

Keperluan Berfikir Di Kalangan Murid & Bagaimana Melaksanakannya

Berfikir adalah satu keperluan dalam menjalani kehidupan. Berfikir sentiasa mempunyai dua tujuan khusus iaitu untuk MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN dan MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH. Oleh sebab kita sentiasa berhadapan dengan situasi yang memerlukan penyelesaian atau keputusan, maka kemahiran berfikir menjadi satu keperluan untuk menguruskan situasi dengan baik.

Dalam konteks pendidikan, kemahiran berfikir membantu menyediakan murid berkebolehan menyelesaikan masalah-masalah kehidupan dan membuat keputusan 'dengan berkesan' apabila diperlukan.

Jika demikian pentingnya aktiviti berfikir itu, apakah murid-murid kita telah diasuh dengan kemahiran berfikir yang betul? Jika guru berhasrat untuk mengasuh murid dengan kemahiran-kemahiran berkaitan, di manakah boleh guru bermula?

Guru yang berhasrat memupuk kemahiran ini di kalangan murid tidaklah perlu memperuntukkan satu mata pelajaran khas tentang berfikir. Apabila ada bahan rangsangan dan permasalahan untuk difikirkan, maka murid dengan sendirinya akan berfikir. Setiap manusia juga sudah 'dibekalkan' dengan satu kebolehan semulajadi iaitu rasa ingin tahu. Jika guru dapat mencantumkan rasa ingin tahu murid dengan bahan pembelajaran yang dihasratkan, maka murid akan berupaya berfikir. Jadi, guru perlu mengenalpasti rangsangan yang tepat untuk murid-muridnya.

Boleh jadi sebab utama murid tidak cenderung untuk berfikir ialah sama ada rangsangannya tidak merangsang atau kerana arahan / soalan yang diberikan tidak jelas. Rangsangan yang tidak merangsang bermaksud guru tidak menyediakan peluang yang mencukupi untuk pelajar membina rasa pemilikan (ownership) ke atas soalan-soalan pembelajaran; hanya guru yang boleh bertanya dan soalan yang ditanyakan juga mungkin terlalu kompleks untuk murid. Sementara tentang arahan / soalan yang tidak jelas, ini adalah keadaan apabila guru tidak memberikannya pada masa yang betul. Guru hanya memberikan arahan setelah pelajar mula berinteraksi dengan bahan dan hanyut dengan penerokaan masing-masing. Atau, boleh jadi juga guru tidak menguasai perbendaharaan kata yang baik menyebabkan lain yang diarah / disoal sedangkan lain tindakan / jawapan yang diharapkan daripada murid.

Shared by Imran Arif
Guest Blogger